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2nd Kyu Syllabus

TAI JUTSU

  • Yokomen Uchi Dai Ikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Yokomen Uchi Dai Nikyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Yokomen Uchi Dai Sankyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Yokomen Uchi Dai Yonkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Yokomen Uchi Dai Gokyo (Ura)
  • Yokomen Uchi Irimi Nage
  • Yokomen Uchi Kote Gaeshi
  • Shomen Uchi Shiho Nage (Omote)
  • Katate Dori Irimi Nage (Jodan / Chudan / Gedan)
  • Katate Dori Kaiten Nage (Soto / Uchi Mawari)
  • Katate Dori Dai Ikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Katate Dori Dai Nikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Katate Dori Dai Sankyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Katate Dori Dai Yonkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ryote Dori Dai Ikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ryote Dori Dai Nikyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ryote Dori Dai Sankyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ryote Dori Dai Sankyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ushiro Ryote Dori Dai Ikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Ushiro Ryote Dori Dai Nikkyo (Omote & Ura)
  • Hanmi Handachi Waza Katate Dori Shiho Nage (Omote)
  • 13 No Jo Kata

A Visit to Japan

These are a few of the photos I took on visits to Japan, which hopefully give a flavour of this fascinating country.

Mike Davidson

Around Tokyo

Tokyo is a collection of districts linked together.   Tokyo has been the capital of Japan since the Meiji restoration.   This was when the military ‘shogun’ government collapsed and Meiji (1852-1912) became emperor in fact as well as name at the age of 16.   Meiji moved the court from Kyoto, adopted a constitution based on that of Germany and established Shinto as the state religion.

Meiji Shrine

There is a Shinto shrine in the district of Harajuku dedicated to the Emperor Meiji.   Shinto shrines put on special festivals at certain times of the year.   The most important one for this shrine is Jan 1st at which 3 million visitors attend.   Visitors to shrines typically clap their hands to attract the attention of the spirit to whom the shrine is dedicated.   Rich ‘clients’ at this shrine can hire a drummer to bang this drum just to be sure Meiji wakes up and attends to his prayer.

Asakusa

Another district is Asakusa which is home to the Buddhist temple Senso-ji (below).    This was founded in the 17th century.

The approach to the temple is lined with souvenir shops and restaurants.   Within the temple grounds is an art gallery and a quiet garden contrasting with the hustle and bustle outside.

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Sumo

Japan is well known for its martial arts.   Possibly the earliest is Sumo which has been popular since the 6th century.   It is associated with Shinto.

Sumo festivals were part of the ritual of praying for a good harvest.   Prior to each bout which lasts anything from a few seconds to a few minutes there is a purification ritual of washing out the mouth with water and throwing handfuls of salt around.   The referees wear costumes very similar to those of a Shinto priest.   Above the ring is a thatched roof.   The platform where the wrestling occurs is made of clay.   Each wrestler in the festival fights about 15 fights against opponents of selected grade usually ending up with the two favorites fighting for the title.  

 The overall winner gets a number of cups donated by various bodies.   Most of the cups are bigger than the wrestler!   Here are two bouts.

Kabuki

Another cultural delight is the traditional theatre dating from the 17th century.   Women actors were banned by the shogun.    It is highly stylised with larger than life characters.   In this picture the hero is an enormous samurai with a 7ft sword.   His costume accentuates the size of him.   At one point in the proceedings he ‘decapitates’ about 8 or 9 thugs with one sweep of the sword.   

The decapitation was engineered by the victims pulling their kimonos over their heads and dropping wooden heads from under their kimonos.   They then ran off!

Note the length of his trousers which hide his high shoes.   This was the court fashion in feudal Japan partly because it made walking so difficult it would be hard to try an assassination attempt.

Kamakura

Kamakura is about 30 miles south of Tokyo.    Kamakura was capital of Japan under the shogun Yoritomo from 1192 until 1333 when the emperor regained control.   The capital then reverted to Kyoto.   As a result of this event 800 retainers of the shogun committed suicide.   Kamakura has 65 Buddhist temples and 19 Shinto shrines.   The most famous site is the great bronze Buddha seen here:

Hakone

About 60 miles west of Tokyo is the lake district of Hakone.   On a clear day there are great views of Mt Fuji across the lake, but when I was there all was mist and cloud.   Hakone is one of the many hot springs areas in Japan.    This means that each hotel has a communal hot bath or onsen.   Male and female are separate though I am told in very rural areas they might not be.   If you are lucky the onsen is open to the countryside and you get great views whilst soaking in 110oF.  

 Onsen are not for washing in – you are expected to thoroughly wash and clean up before getting in.   You are provided with a small towel to cover your privates when walking to the bath.   You can put the towel on the side or put it on your head whilst you are in the onsen.

People with tattoos are not allowed in the onsen as tattoos are associated with the mafia.

Mt Fuji

To get a good view of Mt Fuji you have to wait for a clear day then take a day trip by train to Kawaguchi which is about 60miles from Tokyo and about 8 miles from Fuji.  

Nikko

Another day trip from Tokyo is Nikko about 70 miles away.   The star attraction of the complex of temples and shrines called Tosho-gu is the shrine dedicated to the Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu (1543-1616).   

Ieyasu was the shogun in James Clavell’s novel “Shogun” which was based on the life of the real-life British sailor Will Adams who was shipwrecked in Japan and became an honorary samurai for services to Ieyasu. 

Ieyasu chose Nikko as the location for his tomb and his son Iemitsu constructed the complex.   Amongst the spectacular buildings is this: 

Kyoto

Kyoto was on the list of Japanese cities scheduled for atom bombing by the United States in 1945.   Fortunately US Defense secretary Henry Stimson knew about this city’s architectural and cultural significance.   The city has about 1600 Buddhist temples, hundreds of Shinto shrines and gardens, and several imperial villas and museums.   

Kyoto was the capital of Japan from the Heian period (794-1185) until 1868.

Shinto shrines always have gateways called Torii, sometimes many of them.   They are sometimes just large enough to walk through and sometimes large constructions such as this one near the Heian shrine in Kyoto.

Kyoto festival

One of the dozen or so festivals that take place in Kyoto every year is the Aoi Matsuri.   A parade of people dressed in Heian costume parade through the streets from the Imperial Palace to two Shinto shrines.   The paraders all wear sprigs of a plant.   The guide book says they’re hollyhocks.   The leaflet handed out at the parade said they are ginger plants.   The plant was supposed to ward off earthquakes and thunder.  

The Imperial Palace

The emperor lived here until 1868.   This is the gate.

7.3 Kinkakuji

One of the most famous temples in Kyoto is the golden pavilion ‘kinkaku-ji’.    This was built by the shogun Yoshimitsu (1358 -1408) as a retirement home.

It became a Zen temple when he died.   It was burnt down by a disgruntled monk in 1950 rebuilt by 1955 and regilded in 1987.

Zen Garden

Perhaps the most famous Zen garden is Ryoan-ji situated in Kyoto.   It was laid out in the 1400’s but not ‘discovered’ until the 1930’s.

There are 15 stones in 5 groups.   Not all are visible from any viewpoint.

Other gardens

There many different styles of garden in Japan.   The one below is the private garden in Kyoto of marshal Yamagata Aritomo a leading member of the Meiji Government.   It was here that Yamagata plotted the invasion of Russia (1904). 

Arashiyama

Arashiyama is a district of Kyoto famous for its temples and bamboo forest.   In the river cormorant fishing still takes place in the summer.

Himeji

A day trip from Kyoto is the town of Himeji dominated by probably the most famous castle in Japan.   The current castle was built around 1600.   In common with most cultural and religious buildings it is painstakingly disassembled and reassembled on a 30 year rotating schedule to make sure it does not decay.   It was never attacked and it survived WW2 unscathed.   Himeji castle is supposed to resemble the flight of a wild egret. 

Next door to the castle is a set of 9 gardens built in different but traditional styles in1992.

Hiroshima

Another day trip from Kyoto (in the opposite direction) is Hiroshima.   On 6 Aug 1945 the first atom bomb exploded over Hiroshima at a height of 1600ft.   Hiroshima was a garrison town with the local populace and Korean POW’s employed as slave labour.   The equivalent of 15,000 tons of TNT destroyed 70,000 buildings and killed 80,000 people, a further 60,000 dying from radiation.  

 It was not the worst atrocity of the war: in one night in 1945 bombing of Tokyo killed 200,000 people, and the Japanese are reported to have massacred a similar number of Chinese in Nanking.    

The Police headquarters was directly beneath the explosion which accounts for why its walls were some of the few left standing with the iconic dome preserved as a memorial.

Takayama

In the middle of Japan is the well-preserved town of Takayama.   There are two festivals a year when 11 elaborate floats with mechanical puppets are carted round the streets.   Most of the floats date from the 1600’s.   Each is insured for over $2 million.   The most famous one is the one on the right here.   The small puppet shimmies from horizontal bar to horizontal bar, finally somersaulting onto the back of the monk at the front.

The mechanism is a closely guarded secret and it is controlled by eight puppeteers hidden inside the float.  

English Law and Self Defence

An article by Christopher Dunn and Kevin Pell

Editor’s Note: This article is presented for educational purposes only, and is not intended to be legal advice. If anyone has questions regarding a specific set of circumstances, he or she should contact a private solicitor. It is published here by kind permission from Christopher Dunn.

The law of self-defence in the United Kingdom is born out of the common law. That means that defending oneself, defending property and defending others derives from law made by judges rather than law made by the government in an Act of Parliament. One can only use as much force in the defence of oneself, one’s property, or others as is reasonable in the circumstances.

The law on the prevention of crime, (a close cousin to self defence), is enacted by virtue of Section 3(1) of the Criminal Law Act 1967. This section provides that “A person may use such force as is reasonable in the circumstances in the prevention of crime, or in effecting or assisting in the lawful arrest of offenders or suspected offenders or of persons unlawfully at large.” What is central to both legal concepts is the requirement of reasonable force. One can only use as much force as is reasonable in the circumstances to:

• prevent a crime;
• effect or assist in the lawful arrest of offenders or suspected offenders;
• effect or assist in the lawful arrest of persons unlawfully at large;
• defend oneself;
• defend one’s property;
• defend another.

A person who is attacked or believes that he is about to be attacked may use such force as is reasonably necessary to defend himself or another or to defend his property. If he uses reasonable force he will be acting in lawful self-defence, and would not be guilty of an offence. A person does not need to be attacked before he can avail himself of self defence.

If he believes that he is about to be attacked he can strike pre-emptively. There is no requirement to retreat when attacked even if the opportunity to do so presents itself. Failing to avail oneself of such an opportunity is simply a factor to be taken into account in deciding whether it was necessary to use force at all.

Therefore there are two questions for a jury to address in deciding whether someone has acted in self defence. Firstly, an individual can only be properly said to be acting in self defence if in all the circumstances he honestly believes that it is necessary for him to defend himself, his property, or another and the second question is whether the amount of force which he uses in doing so is reasonable. So an individual who is acting out of revenge, bravado, or aggression does not act in lawful self-defence because in all those circumstances he could not honestly believe that it was necessary for him to defend himself, and as such he would be guilty of the offense charged.

If the jury decides that a person may have been acting in the honest belief that it was necessary for him to defend himself, they must then consider whether the amount of force used was reasonable taking into consideration the circumstances and the danger that person honestly believed himself to be in at the time.

Force used in self-defence is unreasonable and therefore unlawful if it is out of all proportion to the nature of the attack, or is in excess of what is really required of a person in defending himself, his property or another. What is reasonable force in the circumstances is usually a matter of common sense. The greater the threat the more reasonable it would be to use greater force in self defence. So if a person is attacked by a man with a knife in the street and breaks his arm in defending himself this may be reasonable. Greater justification may be called for if he breaks the arm of an unarmed attacker.

However, in English law a person who is defending himself from an attack cannot be expected in the heat of the moment exactly to calculate the precise amount of force required to defend himself. If a person does no more than he honestly and instinctively thought was necessary to defend himself, it is powerful evidence that the amount of force used was reasonable.

Perhaps most importantly, it is not for a person to prove that he acted in lawful self defence, it is for the prosecution to prove, so that a jury is sure that the person was not acting in lawful self-defence.

For the martial artist the principal concept to consider and remember in effecting a technique on the street is that any force used may have to stand up to legal scrutiny at a later date. When faced with a threat, the martial artist has to consider an appropriate use of force by direct comparison to the threat. If the threat level escalates then the amount of force used can escalate. If the threat level diminishes any amount of force would also be expected to diminish.

Walk away if you safely can. If you cannot walk away safely, only use as much force as will allow you to get away. If you cannot get away, use only as much force as is necessary to neutralize the threat. Remember: it is easier to justify an escalation in force than to justify robust force employed from the outset.

The authors are currently compiling a book about martial arts and self defence and would be interested in hearing any stories from martial artists who have employed their skills and the reaction they received from law enforcement officials and/or the Courts.

About the Authors

Chris Dun

Chris Dun is a Barrister at Law, Sovereign Chambers, Leeds, England. He may be reached at: chrisdunn@eidosnet.co.uk

Dunn was born in 1966 in Newcastle upon Tyne. His father and grandfather were successful amateur boxers and he was taught to box from an early age. He has had a lifelong interest in martial arts, studying Aikido while attending university and later, Ju Jitsu.

Before attending university Chris joined the Royal Marine Reserve and then went on to join the Special Constabulary with Northumbria Police before becoming a full-time police officer with Kent County Constabulary. It was his service with the police that precipitated his legal career.

In 1988 Chris undertook an undergraduate degree at Newcastle Polytechnic before embarking on postgraduate studies in law at Newcastle University. In 1995 Chris studied for the Bar exams at the Inns of Court School of Law in London and was called to the bar by the Honourable Society of Gray’s Inn in 1996. From 1996 Chris has been a tenant at Sovereign Chambers in Leeds as part of the criminal team.

Soke Kevin Pell

Soke Kevin Pell, a 7th Dan in Ju-Jitsu, is founder and Chief Instructor Ishin Ryu Ju-Jitsu The Old Bakery, Caston, Norfolk, England.

Kevin Pell was born in 1958 in Edmonton, North London, and began his martial arts career in October 1966. During his 35 years of training to date he has studied the arts of Judo, Karate, Ju Jitsu, Kung Fu, Shorinji Kempo, Kickboxing and most recently Iaido and Kendo.

In 1982 his fascination with the striking and locking arts took him to Japan to study the art of Shorinji-Kempo at the Honbu Dojo (headquarters). In January 1990 he opened the very first Ishin Ryu school of Ju-Jitsu based in his home town of Borehamwood, Herts, in the United Kingdom.

Since early 1990, Kevin Pell has received invitations to teach worldwide his no-nonsense style of Ju-Jitsu attracting international attention from many of the worlds’ leading close protection agencies and military special forces.

Kevin has served with the Royal Marine Reserve and the Royal Military Police. He was also a dog handler in The Parks Police completing his service in the rank of Sergeant. In 1996, Kevin was invited to join an elite team of close protection officers drawn from Britain’s’ Special Forces, responsible for the personal security of leading members of the United Arab Emirates.

His Ishin Ryu Ju-Jitsu clubs have had numerous television appearances both nationally and internationally. They have appeared on The James Whale Show, LWT’s You Bet, The Link, Sky and Cable Television. Kevin has recently appeared as an instructor in Andy McNabs recent video “The S.A.S Survival Guide” where he trained and arranged the escape and evasion sequence.

Kevin appears regularly in martial arts magazines and publications both here and abroad including the internationally acclaimed best seller The Ultimate Book of Martial Arts in which a 32 page section is dedicated to Kevin’s’ unique style Ishin Ryu Ju Jitsu. He continues to receive invitations to teach and expand both at home and abroad.

Kevin holds a Kyoshi teaching diploma presented to him by The Tokushima Budo Council and is a certified member of The Dai Nippon Butoku Kai. Soke currently teaches full time at Honbu, Caston village, The Hawksmoor Centre, Manor Lodge and the Norfolk Golf and Country club.
He was recently been inaugurated into Combat Magazines’ “Black Belt Hall of Fame” and was presented the award by Paul Clifton, (editor of Combat Magazine), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the martial arts.